Parts of a plant cell and their functions biology lesson for kids: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th grades biology lesson.
Plant cells are very similar to animal cells in a few way. After all, plants and animals members of a group of organisms called eukaryotes. Both types of cells have nuclei and mitochondria, for example. There are things that are unique to plant cells, though, and we will discuss some of them.
Of course, plant cells have outer cell membranes, mitochondria (singular: mitochondrion) to provide energy, nuclei (singular: nucleus) to store the DNA, and even
A plant cells has a cell wall that surrounds them. Mostly made of a compound called cellulose, the cell wall is strong, so it helps maintain the shape of the plant cell and the shape of the plant itself. They are part of why even young plants can stand up tall, even though they don’t have any bones like we do. Because of cell walls, plants cells can survive having lots of water rushing in from around them, since the cell wall keeps them from bursting.
When you think of plants, most likely the first color that comes to mind is green. Have you ever wondered what gives plants their green color? Some plant cells have special organelles called chloroplasts. Not every plant cells has them, though; they’re mostly found in the cells of leaves because they have the greatest surface area for absorbing light.
Chloroplasts have a special chemical called chlorophyll, which absorbs light that the chloroplasts use to make glucose, a sugar. This process is called photosynthesis, and plants use the glucose for energy, and a whole lot of other things. Even the cells walls owe their existence to the chloroplasts; after all, cellulose is essentially a long chain of glucose!
There’s one more part of a plant cell that isn’t really unique, but is different in plant cells: vacuoles. Vacuoles are basically balls of fluid that the cells uses for storage Animal cells and other eukaryotic cells have them, too, they can be much, much bigger in plant cells. A plant cell usually has one vacuole in the center, and, and take up 30 to 80% of the entire cell!
Vacuoles are very important for plant cells because they allow the cell to have a high pressure pressing against the cell wall. Plant cells work best when they have this high pressure. When plants don’t get enough water, the plant cell vacuoles shrink. Not only does the pressure fall in plant cells if that happens, but cells even start pulling away from their cell walls. This is what happens when plants wilt.
These special parts of a plant cell make them different from other types of cells, and help them to perform the tasks needed to keep the cell alive and healthy.